Ocean Acidification and its Effects on Coral Reefs

APA-style research paper written on ocean acidification and its effects on coral reefs (9th grade Honors Bio)

Please use the following sources and abide by the following outline.

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Abstract:

Summarize finer points of research and introduce topics:
State the main concern of the paper: ocean acidification’s effects on coral reefs
Provide a brief timeline on how carbon emissions have worsened recently
Make it transparent that immediate action must be taken in order to mitigate the drastic effects of ocean acidification on coral reefs and other oceanic ecosystems

Body Paragraphs:

No. 1
Introduce findings and provide a brief history of studies on carbon emissions and ocean acidification.

No. 2
Provide information on why/how ocean acidification is occurring; elaborate on the chemistry behind ocean acidification.

No. 3
Discuss economic/ecological ramifications of ocean acidification/coral bleaching

No. 4
Provide a timeline/statistics on what will occur in our oceans if current carbon emissions trends continue.

No. 5
Discuss possible solutions to the crisis

Conclusion:

Summarize research
Summarize solutions to the crisis.
Make closing statements; emphasize the gravity of the situation.

References:

Abstract:

Summarize finer points of research and introduce topics:
State the main concern of the paper: ocean acidification’s effects on coral reefs
Provide a brief timeline on how carbon emissions have worsened recently
Make it transparent that immediate action must be taken in order to mitigate the drastic effects of ocean acidification on coral reefs and other oceanic ecosystems

Body Paragraphs:

No. 1
Introduce findings and provide a brief history of studies on carbon emissions and ocean acidification.

No. 2
Provide information on why/how ocean acidification is occurring; elaborate on the chemistry behind ocean acidification.

No. 3
Discuss economic/ecological ramifications of ocean acidification/coral bleaching

No. 4
Provide a timeline/statistics on what will occur in our oceans if current carbon emissions trends continue.

No. 5
Discuss possible solutions to the crisis

Conclusion:

Summarize research
Summarize solutions to the crisis.
Make closing statements; emphasize the gravity of the situation.

References:
Abstract:

Summarize finer points of research and introduce topics:
State the main concern of the paper: ocean acidification’s effects on coral reefs
Provide a brief timeline on how carbon emissions have worsened recently
Make it transparent that immediate action must be taken in order to mitigate the drastic effects of ocean acidification on coral reefs and other oceanic ecosystems

Body Paragraphs:

No. 1
Introduce findings and provide a brief history of studies on carbon emissions and ocean acidification.

No. 2
Provide information on why/how ocean acidification is occurring; elaborate on the chemistry behind ocean acidification.

No. 3
Discuss economic/ecological ramifications of ocean acidification/coral bleaching

No. 4
Provide a timeline/statistics on what will occur in our oceans if current carbon emissions trends continue.

No. 5
Discuss possible solutions to the crisis

Conclusion:

Summarize research
Summarize solutions to the crisis.
Make closing statements; emphasize the gravity of the situation.

References:

Anthony, K. R., Kline, D. I., Diaz-Pulido, G., Dove, S., & Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (2008, November 11). Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders. Retrieved from https://www.pnas.org/content/105/45/17442
This source provides an in-depth analysis of the effects that ocean acidification, coupled with subsequent rising sea levels and ocean temperatures, have led to many species of coral experiencing reproductive difficulties. Calcification of coral, an additional result of acidification, is thoroughly explained in a scientific manner. This source’s credibility is affirmed by the extensive list of scholarly references cited in the article’s conclusion. In summation, this article will be of service to me while writing my paper by providing the scientific background vital to understanding how ocean acidification affects coral reefs.

Atkinson, M. J., & Cuet, P. (2008, December 23). Possible effects of ocean acidification on coral reef biogeochemistry: Topics for research. Retrieved from https://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v373/p249-256/
This source further analyzes how ocean calcification originates and how it negatively affects the world’s coral reefs. Calcification is thoroughly explained in a scientific manner, as the authors explain how calcification alters the chemical structure. This source’s credibility is affirmed by the extensive list of scholarly references cited in the article’s conclusion. In summation, this article will be of service to me while writing my paper by providing additional scientific background vital to understanding how ocean acidification, specifically calcification, affects coral reefs.

Ayala, C. (2014, December 03). Effects of Ocean Acidification on Corals. Retrieved from https://usa.oceana.org/effects-ocean-acidification-corals
This source analyzes how heightened global carbon emissions have only increased the rate at which ocean acidification and subsequent coral calcification and bleaching continues to occur. It provides a detailed explanation on which countries are responsible for the increased levels of carbon emissions and how the dire situation facing the world’s coral reefs will only continue to proliferate if immediate action is not taken. This source’s credibility is affirmed by the extensive list of scholarly references cited in the article’s conclusion. In summation, this article will be of service to me while writing my paper by providing background information on how increased carbon emissions worsen ocean acidification and coral bleaching.

Eyre, B. D., Cyronak, T., Drupp, P., Carlo, E. H., Sachs, J. P., & Andersson, A. J. (2018, February 23). Coral reefs will transition to net dissolving before end of century. Retrieved from https://science.sciencemag.org/content/359/6378/908.full
This source provides a clear timeline on what will occur over the next century regarding the systemic destruction of coral reefs if current trends continue. This timeline allows me to interpret how drastic the threat of increased carbon emissions and ocean acidification is in regard to the proliferation of coral reefs. This source’s credibility is affirmed by the extensive list of scholarly references cited in the article’s conclusion. In summation, this article will be of service to me while writing my paper by drawing a conclusive timeline that displays how adverse of an effect ocean acidification has on coral reefs and how the international community does not have much time to intervene before the damage done is irreversible.

Ireland, P. P. (2019, October 23). What You Need to Know About Ocean Acidification. Retrieved from https://www.nrdc.org/stories/what-you-need-know-about-ocean-acidification?gclid=Cj0KCQjwirz3BRD_ARIsAImf7LM26TTrM6CDIWpBxcEwDgsQtu01-GRxoWevTRs5psrf6RlJqJX4Dw4aAscqEALw_wcB
This source describes how ocean acidification could affect our lives in a manner more severe than the destruction of coral reefs. It depicts how, in detail, fishing communities could be decimated economically, as the residents of such places rely on the organisms that inhabit coral reefs and the tourism they generate as a source of income. These economic ramifications may lead more people to educate themselves on the subject, as adverse economic effects usually lead to increased media/government attention on a specific issue. This source’s credibility is affirmed by the extensive list of scholarly references cited in the article’s conclusion. In summation, this article will be of service to me while writing my paper by describing how ocean acidification can cause economic disruption in fishing communities, which will bring further urgency to the issue.

Jokiel, P. L. (2015, May 21). Predicting the impact of ocean acidification on coral reefs: Evaluating the assumptions involved. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article/73/3/550/2458699
This source further elaborates on what will occur in the near future regarding the systemic destruction of coral reefs if current trends continue. The author of this source describes how calcification and subsequent coral bleaching will only increase exponentially if current emission trends continue. This source’s credibility is affirmed by the extensive list of scholarly references cited in the article’s conclusion. In summation, this article will be of service to me while writing my paper by providing a scientific explanation of how current emission trends pose a drastic threat to the survival of the world’s coral reefs, and how the international community does not have much time to intervene before the damage done is irreversible.

Michelson, A. (2019, September 27). Coral Reefs Face the Dual Threats of Ocean Acidification and Erosion. Retrieved from https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/coral-reefs-face-dual-threats-ocean-acidification-and-erosion-180973231/
This source describes the additional threat to coral reefs of erosion, and how ocean acidification only continues to worsen the great threat that erosion poses to coral reefs. The author describes in detail how the coral reefs, already weakened by ocean acidification, only become more susceptible to erosion, as many organisms attempt to consume what remains of the weakened corals. This source’s credibility is affirmed by the extensive list of scholarly references cited in the article’s conclusion. In summation, this article will be of service to me while writing my paper by describing how ocean acidification makes coral reefs more susceptible to additional environmental threats that will lead to their destruction if action is not taken soon.

Scientists Pinpoint How Ocean Acidification Weakens Coral Reefs. (2018, January 29). Retrieved from https://www.whoi.edu/press-room/news-release/scientists-identify-how-ocean-acidification-weakens-coral-skeletons/
This source further elaborates on how ocean acidification, coupled with subsequent rising sea levels and ocean temperatures, have led to many species of coral altering chemically. Calcification of coral, an additional result of acidification, is named the top cause of coral bleaching and reproductive complications. This source’s credibility is affirmed by the extensive list of scholarly references cited in the article’s conclusion. In summation, this article will be of service to me while writing my paper by providing scientific insight on how/why chemical changes in coral occur as a result of ocean acidification.

What EPA is Doing to Address Ocean and Coastal Acidification. (2018, June 28). Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/ocean-acidification/what-epa-doing-address-ocean-and-coastal-acidification
This source describes the steps that the United States Environmental Protection Agency, with the support of the U.S. Government, is taking to combat ocean acidification. The author(s) thoroughly describes how the efforts taken by the EPA to curb ocean and air pollution are both decreasing the drastic effects of acidification on coral reef ecosystems. Additionally, the author describes the large number of resources being used by the agency to determine the causes of ocean acidification, and how/if the damage already done to coral reefs can be reversed. This source’s credibility is affirmed by the extensive list of scholarly references cited in the article’s conclusion. In summation, this article will be of service to me while writing my paper by proposing several plausible solutions to the damage being caused to coral reef ecosystems by ocean acidification.

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