1. Describe how the adipocytes, muscles, and hepatocytes work together to generate energy using NEFA’s (aka Long Chain Fatty Acids). How are these processes regulated in these tissues? How do adipocytes regulate triglyceride synthesis? What part of triglycerides are converted to glucose and how? How does the liver get the energy it needs and include transport of NEFA’s into the site for beta oxidation? Include relationship between or effects of beta oxidation and other pathways. What happen to fat stores in the muscles? What are the limiting factors that affect the rate of beta-oxidation in the muscles and liver? Include pathways, enzymes, substrates, products, tissues, hormones, etc. involved in these processes.
2. What are the ketone bodies? How are they synthesize? Which forms of ketone bodies are used by what tissues? What are the benefits of ketone body production for the hepatocytes and the body, use, and consequences of excess ketone body production in the body?
3. How do cells prevent glycogenolysis and glycogen synthesis from occurring at the same time in hepatocytes and muscles? Include substrates, enzymes, cofactors, activators, inhibitors, hormones, mechanism, etc.
4. Why is fructose thought to be more lipogenic than glucose? Is this true or false? Defend your answer by Including the metabolism of fructose and it relates it to synthesis of lipids.
5. How does the cell prevent glycolysis and gluconeogenesis from occurring at the same time? Include how the process relate to TCA cycle and its controls as well other pathways involved in different types of cells and tissues. Be sure to include controls/effectors, enzymes, cofactors, hormones, transport of H+ and substrates for gluconeogenesis and glycolysis.
6. How does the body prevent nitrogen toxication? What are the sources of nitrogen in the body? What processes does the body use to remove the nitrogen? What are the advantages of each method of nitrogen removal? How do different tissues involved in urea cycle and excretion work collaboratively?
7. How does the liver prevent fatty acid synthesis and beta oxidation occurring at the same time? Show the process, pathways, hormones, substrates, compartmentalization, etc. that affect the two processes.
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