13th edition: Chapters 8, 9, 10 and 12.

Social Class in the United States

1. Defining social class in America is an objective science because there are clear-cut, agreed-upon definitions of each class.
​a. True.​b. False.​​
2. The money you receive, whether it comes to you from a paycheck or from your assets is considered
a. capital.​​​​​
b. property.​​​​​
c. wealth.
d. income.
3. In 2017, the highest-paid U.S. CEO received:

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4. What do we call the ability of a person to exert his or her will even in the face of opposition?

5. Domhoff’s model of the power posits that the power elite consist of an intersection comprised of only the upper class and the corporate community.
a. True.​​​​​b. False.

6. June was the president of her neighborhood association. That group afforded her a high
a. status inconsistency.​​​c. degree of wealth.
b. status.​​​​​d. status consistency.

7. Lenski found which of the following to be true about status inconsistent individuals?
a. While higher paid than everyone else, they were generally unhappy. ​​​
b. They reported higher levels of satisfaction with their location in society.​​​​
c. They tended to be more politically radical.
d. While having relatively low incomes, they tend to be right of center.

8. Marx’s model of the social classes specifically included
a. managers. ​​​​c. petty officers.
b. workers.​​​​​d. royalty.

9. Which group members, because of their great wealth, are at the top of Wright’s modification of Marx’s model of social classes?
a. Workers.​​​​​c. Managers.
b. Petty bourgeoisie.​​​d. Capitalists.

10. Which class members consider themselves the real workers and those above them practically inexperienced?

11. The class members most clearly affected by education are found in which social class?

12. Homeless individuals are considered members of which social class?

13. Seth did menial work—mostly housecleaning—when he could find it. He had been homeless for a year, and since then simply did not have a good enough employment record to find a regular job. He relied on welfare, a subsidized rental, food stamps, and even the occasional visit to a food pantry to supplement his work income. In terms of class, Seth belonged to the

14. Lee started as a bank teller and fifteen years later ended up running the bank. This is an example of what kind of social mobility?

15. H.J. Gans argues that poverty is an inevitable, functional necessity. Without poverty, society’s dirty work would not get done.
a. True.​​​​​b. False.

16. Which of the following accurately reflects Oscar Lewis’s views concerning the culture of poverty?
a.​It is a legacy of Roman Catholicism, with its anti-capitalist, anti-modern tendencies.
b.​It is found in societies that lack education and reject the notion of private property.
c.​It is a subculture of the Western social order.
d.​It is a subculture found in either capitalist or non-capitalist economic systems.

17. What is the name of the theory which assumes that the poor have certain attitudes and behaviors that cause them to be different from other people in essential way?

Race and Ethnicity

18. Science by and large disagrees with DuBois that race is a predominately social construct without biological meaning.
a. True.​​​​​b. False.

19. The profusion of skin colors and physical characteristics of different humans is due to
a. the development of pure races.
b. the differences in climate and other living conditions humans encountered as they populated the
c. biology rather than evolution.
d. the emergence of dominant groups in the last three centuries.

20. There are two ways that a group can become a minority group. Both involve, in one way or another, which of the following?
a. Race.​​​​​c. Climate. ​
b. Ethnic work.​​​​d. Location.​

21. Research on __________ has shown that when people of different racial-ethnic backgrounds get together often and on an equal footing, stereotyping and prejudicial attitudes decline.
a. heightened discrimination​​c. the racist mind​​​
b. institutional racism​​d. contact theory

22. An unfair action, whether against a single individual or a group, is called:

23. Genocide and forced population transfer are both types of:

24. An attitude or prejudgment, usually negative, is an example of:

25. Psychologist Eugene Hartley (1946) made up the names of three ethnic groups—Wallonians, Pireneans, and Danireans. In his research, Hartley discovered that people who were prejudiced against Jews and blacks generally felt what about the three made-up ethnic groups?
a. They loved the nonexistent Wallonians, Pireans, and Danireans.
b. They also hated the nonexistent Wallonians, Pireneans, and Danireans.
c. They praised the nonexistent Wallonians, Pireneans, and Danireans for their support in the struggle
against their enemies.
d. They questioned who the nonexistent Wallonians, Pireneans, and Danireans were.

26. The idea of racial superiority is consistent with some of the evidence.
a. True.​​​​​b. False.

27. According to research, it appears that people in the minority __________ the norms of the dominant group and learn to be __________ people in their own group.
a. are prejudiced against; always tolerant of
b. internalize; prejudiced against
c. externalize; critical of
d. reject; accepting of

28. Which of the following racial slurs illustrates DuBois’s concept of double consciousness among Blacks living in American society?
a. Cracker. ​​​​​c. Cotton chopper.
b. Oreo.​​​​​d. Jim Crow.

29. Raphael Ezekial concluded that the main reason certain individuals are draw to hate-groups is that they were bored and are drawn to high-risk behavior.
a. True.​​​​​b. False.

30. The annihilation or attempted annihilation of a people because of their presumed race or ethnicity is known as

31. What is it called when a group is absorbed into the mainstream culture?

32. This pattern of relations allows or even encourages the differences among the various racial–ethnic groups.

33. When the dominant group takes advantage of the work of minority group members and reaps the economic gain, this is known as

34. In Abel’s mind, members of a group other than his own are always given the best grades in class. However, he doesn’t realize it is because they work so hard to get those grades. His way of seeing certain aspects of the situation, but not being able to see the other aspects, is called

35. Which of the following creates self-fulfilling stereotypes?
a. Labels.​​​​​c. Latent dysfunctions.
b. Capitalists.​​​​​d. The authoritarian personality.

Gender and Age

36. Sociologists try to determine how __________ affect(s) __________.
a. biology; social factors​​​c. sex; gender
b. social factors; biology​​​d. primary sex characteristics; biology

37. In societies such as Afghanistan, India, and Jordan, a woman thought to have brought disgrace on her family may be subject to which of the following?
a. Condemned to go without speaking for a year
b. Killed by a male relative in a so-called honor killing
c. Asked to emigrate abroad
d. Forbidden to marry

38. On average, employers start men out at higher salaries than women, and women never catch up. This phenomenon is called the

39. At present, both men and women can be found guilty of sexual harassment.
​a. True.​b. False.
40. Most rape victims are aged:

41. The current trend when women began outnumbering men in college started in:

42. From 1970 to 2014, the number of women physicians
a. grew to the point where a quarter of all physicians are now women.
b. increased to the point where most medical doctors are now women.
c. increased so much that now almost half of physicians are women.
d. decreased to half the number of what it once was.

43. Gail, as a female, is more likely to go into __________ than __________.
a. elementary school teaching; engineering
b. construction; family and consumer sciences
c. engineering; elementary school teaching
d. engineering; dentistry

44. In many Native American cultures, Berdachism is:
a. seen as alien and threatening.
b. results in the individual being stigmatized as deviant or criminal.
c. is considered “spiritual”.
d. regarded as abnormal, resulting in the banishment of the individual.
45. What is the name of the famous photographer who spent the first half of their life as male, and the second as a female? (Give the reporter’s current name).

46. What is the name of the philosophy which holds that males and females should be equal on all social, economic, and political levels in society?

47. What is the name of the popular readers of the 1940s and 1950s which conveyed the idea that women were destined to be mothers and men’s companions?

48. Yvonne has worked for ten years in the public relations department of a large firm. She has been promoted to several higher paying managerial positions, but never to an executive position, even though she has directed several successful projects for the firm. Her lack of promotion MOST likely illustrates

49. Researchers have found that boys have slightly higher visual spatial abilities, and girls slightly higher verbal.
​a. True.​b. False.

50. The “Gender Wage Gap” between white males and females is widest between:
a. White males and White females.
b. White males and Black females.
c. White males and Hispanic females.
d. No groups. The “Gender Wage Gap” is a myth made up by the mainstream media.

Marriage and the Family.

51. Francisco, Jim, Maria and Louise occupy the same apartment, sharing routine chores such as
cooking, cleaning and laundry. Each contributes a share of their earnings to pay utilities and food
costs. Sociologists would describe this group as a(n)
​a. household.​b. clan.
​c. extended family.​d. tribe.

52. A wife, her husband, and their two children make up what kind of family?​
​a. Extended household.​​​b. Nuclear family.
​c. Extended family.​d. Household.

53. Individuals grow up in his or her
​a. family of procreation.​c. family of orientation.
​b. clan. ​d. tribe.
54. The family that is formed when a couple’s first child is born is referred to as a​
​a. family of procreation.​​​b. family of orientation.
​c. clique.​d. household.

55. The members of the Onedia community engaged in a sexual practice called female continence.
​a. True. ​​​​​b. False.​​​​​

56. Abeo, a Nigerian accountant, has recently immigrated to the U.S. His wife and three children still reside in Nigeria. He sends them money each month. The video “Family Life—The Simpsons”, refers to this as a family of choice.
​a. True. ​​​​​b. False.​​​​​

57. In the United States, the common practice is for whites to marry whites, African Americans to marry African Americans, and members of specific social classes to marry within their class. What is this marital practice called?

58. In some tribal societies it is customary for the son or daughter of one tribe to marry the son or daughter of a neighboring tribe to build mutual trust and form an alliance. This pattern of marital behavior is called:

59. Kaniehtiio, of the Iroquois, does not know anything about her biological father’s side of the family. Evidently, she is living within a __________ system, where descent is traced only on the mother’s side.
​a. patrilineal. ​​​​c. matrilineal.​​​​​
​b. bilineal. ​​​​​d. egalitarian.​​​​​

60. In terms of size, most Americans think a __________ family with __________ children is best.
​a. small; zero, one, or two​​​​​
​b. medium-sized; three to four​​​​​
​c. large; five to seven​
​d. really large; eight or more

61. Parents are actually spending more time with the children today than in the last forty years. The main way parents have found the extra time is by:
​a. sleeping less. ​​​​
​b. spending less time with others.
​c. working shorter hours.​
​d. enjoying the new, shorter workweek most employers have implemented.​

62. What do sociologists call the generation torn between work and family responsibilities?
​a. The sandwich. ​​​​
​b. The terminal.
​c. The misplaced priorities.​
​d. The “I can have it all, and I can have it now”.​

63. Brothers and sisters or parents and children involved in sexual relations are engaging in
​a. intimacy rape. ​​​​c. incest.​​​​​
​b. rape. ​​​​​d. battering.​​​​​​
64. Children adjust better to divorce if
​a. the parent they live with is not making a good adjustment to the divorce. ​​​
​b. their routines are varied.​
​c, they have another adult they can turn to.​
​d. they experience a great deal of conflict.
65. Same sex marriage is now legal in how many states?


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